If you’re going to take a closer look at the best pH meters, you will uncover that these products are specially manufactured to serve a number of practical uses. Such a device is serviceable for beer brewers and for those who are into aquarium hobbies.
Besides the fact that this product plays a vital role in maximizing soil and optimizing the quality of water, this is also practical to use in laboratories as well as in hydroponics. Needless to say, it can benefit in a lot of different applications making it a wise investment that would pay off in the end.
Fortunately, this device is readily available and relying on the use, you can search for countless reasonably priced options out there. However, sometimes having numerous options could complicate the entire shopping process; this is the reason why consumers are encouraged to go over the purchasing guides discussed in this post for some useful tips that could lessen the burden of shopping for the right device for you.
Buying a high-quality pH ppm meter is essential to keeping your fish healthy. So fish tank owners must have a general idea of what to consider when purchasing one. Here’s a quick look at some key considerations to help you understand how I went about reviewing them:
- Type: Choosing the correct pH measure device/meter is a massive step. Generally, this choice will come down to four kinds: standard range, benchtop, portable handheld, and pH electrode meters. So you must have a solid understanding of them to make a responsible buying decision.
- Quality: It’s not wise to purchase a pH testing meter without researching its quality. Therefore, take some time to look into the brands and customer reviews to get a real handle on their effectiveness.
- Cost: You must resist choosing a cheap water pH reader. Instead, finding a proper balance between quality and price is more helpful. I’d suggest setting aside a budget based on your wanted features to ensure this balance is more easily found.
In line with this, you can also take a closer look at the different products showcased below so you can have ideas on what to search for when shopping for one. See to it to mull over the valuable features of each product and weigh the pros and cons of each option to ensure that you are making the right investment.
Table of Contents
- Top 9 pH Meter Reviews of 2023
- What to Look for When Buying a PH Meter
- Other Important Factors to Consider
- Frequently Asked Questions
Top 9 pH Meter Reviews of 2023
1. VIVOSUN pH and TDS Meter Combo
This pH TDS meter is certainly a very practical option that can be utilized in a broad array of applications. As compared to other similar products, it is not bulky, quite easy to use and handle and does a good job of reading TDS and pH in nearly all liquids such as soil and water. You will also be stunned of its portability and convenience of use.
Once bought, this is shielded by a protective case; it is a useful device that can be used for swimming pools and aquariums as well. If you prefer dependable and quick readings, this one won’t let you down. This is low cost and guarantees users with high accuracy they’ve been looking for.
These are must-haves because they are user-friendly and the results are clearly shown on LCD screens. If you want, you could also examine the pH of soil by simply dissolving a sample in the water.
However, a few of the weak points that can be observed with this device are its incapability to remain calibrated and each meter calls for a battery. Before getting this one, make sure to keep these factors in mind.
- Practical to utilize for lab pH and TDS testing uses or at home applications
- Capable of providing instant and reliable readings
- A piece of cake to utilize and handle
- Adept at reading TDS and pH in nearly all liquids
- Built with handheld design that’s convenient and portable
- Each meter calls for a battery
- pH meter has issues staying calibrated
2. Bluelab PENPH Pocket Tester
If you wish to shop for a good pH meter that could provide you with more accurate readings, is designed to be quite handy and is not that complicated to calibrate, then you have come to the right place. This device is a good investment that won’t leave you feeling regretful after purchase.
In addition to this, some of the other useful features that this pH measuring device has consist of a low battery indicator, automatic off function and units for temperature. Meanwhile, once purchased, the package already comes with lanyard, AAA battery and calibration solution.
Without question, this is dependable in gauging pH in solution for alkaline and acid conditions. It also aids in completing your controller and monitor system with other meters and testers from Bluelab.
Howbeit, two disadvantages that must not be ignored if you are eyeing to purchase this device are its fluctuating readings even when you use the same solution mixture and it seems to be reliable only in terms of reading simple buffer solutions.
- Ideal to use for testing drinking water, growing, pools, brewing and hydroponics
- Built with straightforward 2-point calibration and automatic temperature compensation
- Can provide more precise readings unlike other sorts of testing methods
- Designed with calibration reminders as well as backlit LCD display
- Easy, convenient and portable to use
- Readings tend to differ every day with the same solution mixture
- Appears to be sterling only at reading plain buffer solutions
3. Apera Instruments pH Tester Kit
There are countless of pH testers sold on the market at present; however, not all of them can provide you with the kind of accuracy you are aiming for. So, if you seriously want to obtain accurate readings when testing water, this device can work like a charm for your requirements.
By the same token, this p H measuring device is designed with auto temperature compensation that aims to provide precision in different temperatures. It is built with a big-sized LCD that is equipped with a total of three backlit colors that are meant to illustrate distinct modes; dual display of pH and temperature and some reminders of steady readings as well as accomplished calibrations.
Regardless, this device seems to be fragile so its long-lasting service appears to be questionable and it comes with an expensive selling costs which would surely be a problem for those with limited budgets. See to it to bear these minor gripes in mind prior to making the final shopping decision.
- Comes complete with ready to utilize calibration solutions
- Capable of identifying five kinds of solutions
- Equipped with premium quality glass pH probe that can be instantly replaced
- Built with smiley icons that display steady readings
- Designed with large-sized LCD with three backlit colors
- Sold at a costly price tag
- May not last long
4. KoolaMo Digital PH Meter
Are you in search of top quality digital pH meter? Then, this product can meet you requirements.
This device is built with an automatic temperature compensation feature that adapts to water quality as well as the water temperature in order to provide pH readings almost immediately. It is a nice investment in that it could help guarantee that your hydroponics, pool and drinking water comes with a suitable pH balance and it is certified risk-free to use with tester precision pH accuracy.
For you to ensure acquiring the most precise and stable reading, it is a must to carefully follow the detailed manual provided in the package upon purchase. This pH meter for drinking water is reliable when it comes to precisely figuring out the pH value of the sample at any temperature in scope of 32°F – 176°F.
On the other hand, this device is a little troubling to store and it specifically calls for distilled rinse so be mindful of these reminders.
- Can guarantee superior accuracy
- Can be calibrated with one touch button with the aid of buffer powder
- Comes with built-in automatic temperature compensation
- Capable of ensuring quick readings without any trouble
- Designed with responsive electrode sensor to precisely read levels of pH
- Especially requires distilled rinse before use
- Storage is a concern
5. Apera Instruments PH20 pH Tester Kit
You can consider this tool as one of the best pH testers for aquariums. It is no sweat to calibrate and use. It is supported by top-drawer pH sensor that comes with low impedance and does a nice job of guaranteeing superior response rate. This is designed to be portable so you can take it with you conveniently. Generally speaking, this necessitates regular calibration and it already consists of two calibration bottles that help make the process more smoothly.
This tool includes an exquisite carrying case, lanyard and pH 4&7 buffers upon purchase. It can ensure by up to two thousand hours of constant operation and is run by AAA batteries. Such an instrument features automatic recognition of steady values that increases consistency and this simply means to say that there is no need for you to speculate when to hold measurement in a manual mode.
Nonetheless, this device may be susceptible to drifting and it does not have the capability to remain calibrated.
- Well-built with outstanding calibration solutions and portable carry case
- Supreme quality at affordable price
- No trouble to utilize and accurate
- Supported by Apera quality pH sensor that guarantees superior response rate
- Designed with automatic recognition of steady values that enhance consistency
- May be prone to drifting
- Incapable of staying calibrated
6. Milwaukee Instruments MW102
This pH meter review will make it clear how functional, accurate and reliable this pH gauging device really is. It is delighting to note that this is highly practical for people working on a short budget but calls for quick and dependable measurements.
Not to mention, this handy temperature and pH meter is built with an uncomplicated design yet it is very much capable of executing what it was designed for. It enables users to perform constant pH readings made possible by the broad scope of temperatures at which the sample could be gauged.
Any other way, please be guided that this pH measuring tool can only read the Celsius scale and it is quite indispensable to hold down the temperature button in a continuous mode.
- Consists of calibration solution of pH 4.01 and pH 7.01 20 ml sachet
- 9V battery is already included upon purchase
- Comes complete with ma911b/1 pH electrode
- Ideal for measuring aquariums, drinking water, pools and hydroponics water systems
- Serves as a very easy to use, practical and precise instrument
- Temperature reading merely reads Celsius scale
- Particularly requires holding down the temperature button continuously
7. Sonkir Soil pH Meter
Looking for soil and aquarium pH testers can be painful at times since there are limitless options to check out. If you want to end up getting the right investment when testing your soil, you can give this product a closer look.
It is elating to know that this instrument comes with premium needle detection technology that is A1 at providing accurate moisture and pH value. In the same way, it aids in keeping your outdoor as well as indoor plants healthy and looking good.
This executes more than merely testing the level of pH since aside from the pH level, you could also unveil how moist or dry your soil is and if your soil is able to obtain a suitable amount of sunlight or not.
Notwithstanding, this soil pH tester is not the ideal pick if you intend to test water as it was not designed for that purpose and this seems to generate slow results only.
- Equipped with super sturdy probes
- Comes with rust-resistant and durable design
- Known as a very reliable and straightforward to utilize soil testing kit
- Ideal for lawns and fields due to its lengthy needles
- Comes with a decent selling cost
- Tends to produce slow results
- Not appropriate for testing water
8. Apera Instruments SX620 pH Tester Kit
This electronic pH meter is specifically designed with a sleek p H probe style that is quite appropriate to be used for tiny volume tests and test tubes. This is user-friendly in that it is manufactured featuring a straightforward one-button type of operation.
Bear in mind that this device is a very sensitive tool which conveys that it must be treated with extra care. It is capable of fitting easily into a tiny test tube but won’t be suitable for a longer one. Aside from these, it comes with a minimum supply of requisite liquids and comes with a nice casing too.
Nevertheless, this pH gauging tool cannot be utilized without any buffer solutions to calibrate the instrument and since it is a little overpriced, this is not a suitable option for those who are on a budget.
- Constructed with automatic temperature compensation and automatic three-point calibration features
- An economical option general-purpose pH testing
- Comes complete and includes portable casing, storage solution and three kinds of pre-mixed calibration solutions
- Equipped with replaceable sleek pH probe
- Water-resistant and dust-resistant
- Cannot be utilized without any buffer solutions to calibrate the tool
- Not ideal for those who are short in budget
9. Money2U Digital PH Meter
As an aquarium owner, you must be very much aware of the importance of investing in a top-notch aquarium pH meter. This device is ideal for other purposes too such as for testing drinking water, hydroponics, pools and so on. If you want to keep the tank water safe, clean and healthy for your pet fish, then you’ve got to buy one for yourself.
It is engrossing to note that this device does a stunning job of radiating and dimming hinging on the circulating light. It can guarantee easy, convenient and fast reading and calibrating the tester is done with the aid of a single touch button that makes use of buffer powder.
Still and all, a few of the lapses that you could expect once you purchased this pH measuring device are its susceptibility to getting scratched easily and it has potentiality to flex and bounce as you turn it on and off.
- Equipped with receptive electrode sensor that reads pH levels precisely
- Does not require looking after the temperature of testing water
- Can provide stable readings and results
- Includes step-by-step instructions
- Designed with superior accuracy, automatic calibration and auto temperature compensation features
- May be susceptible to getting easily scratched
- Tends to flex and bounce slightly as you switch on and off
What to Look for When Buying a PH Meter
Nowadays, it is easier to look for various devices that are manufactured to gauge pH levels. Even so, when you try to search around, you’ll get to realize that a pH meter device is more outstanding than other available options.
When you invest in a pH meter, take into account that there are several substantial factors that you need to reckon with and these consist of the device’s portability, accuracy, temperature, electrodes and calibration.
So, prior to making the final buying decision, be sure to keep the following considerations in mind:
- Bench or portable? For this, your budget must be highly considered. Also, think about where you are going to use it. Does it need to be water-resistant? Are you going to utilize it in the field?
- What is accuracy necessary for your particular application? Do you especially require a less expensive pocket meter? Are you in need of an expensive bench meter? It is also imperative to mull over the dependability and consistency of the meter.
- Temperature. It is practical to have your samples at room temperature prior to the testing proper. And, from there be sure to choose a meter that is specifically designed with automatic temperature compensation.
- What about the electrode. Please note that it is important to make certain that the electrode is built with premium quality and is designed to be appropriate for whatever application you’ll use it for. You may check out the latest flat cell technology probe available these days.
- Calibration. It is highly suggested to ensure having the latest set of buffers. Pick a meter that comes with an uncomplicated one-step calibration.
Other Important Factors to Consider
What is a pH meter? How does it work?
The quality of water in fish tanks is absolutely crucial for the living creatures that dwell in it. A little alteration in the level of temperature, as well as pH, could result in worsening outcomes and even fatality to the reptiles or aquatic pets inside the aquaria. Thus, the application of the suitable p H meter is particularly necessary.
It is worth noting that the ecosystem in the fish tank should be as much as identical to the natural conditions as feasible. This is why it matters for the measurements to be regular and capable of offering precise outcomes. A pH meter is generally utilized in examining fish tank water, pool maintenance and gardening and many more.
Such a device somehow needs to gauge the concentration of hydrogen ions. A pH meter functions like a voltmeter. It gauges the electrical potential (voltage) generated by the solution whose acidity we are engrossed in, and then it correlates it with the voltage of the established solution and utilizes the distinction in voltage which refers to the potential difference between them so as to figure out the distinction in pH.
What are the different types of pH meters?
It is important to know the right type of pH meter to get and the different kinds of pH meters that you can select from include:
- Standard Range pH Meters
These are designed to help gauge the standard pH scale from zero up to fourteen. This makes them practical to be used for anything that relates to water-based solutions. Moreover, there are some versions that come with smaller scales; for instance, 4 by up to 10, even though these forms of pH meters are not ideal for most laboratory environments.
- Benchtop pH Meters
These types of pH meters are adept at taking in the addition of built-in printers, data loggers and different probe arms and accessories. Most of them are packed with features and are capable of providing one-of-a-kind precision. Apart from these, they could also feature either an extended or standard range.
- Portable Handheld pH Meters
These are primarily designed to be nearly as advanced as benchtop models. And, it is because of this that they are deemed as appropriate alternatives for field and laboratory uses. Some versions of them feature a pen-style design that allows them to be easily carried inside pockets.
- Wireless pH Meters
These are connected with tablets and smartphones to log and keep track of p H measurements. They are designed to gauge distinct sensor inputs. The transmission of data is executed by means of Bluetooth wireless technology to a tablet or smartphone that comes with an installed app. It is the app that enables the smart phone to match up and introduce multiple transmitters.
- pH Electrodes
These are available in many distinct styles that are both practical for industrial and lab applications. They are mainly comprised of glass reason why these are prone to get damaged easily. Keep in mind that electrodes are designed to gauge nearly all watery media. And, these are not built to be utilized in solvents like those that do not have any loose hydrogen ions.
Why do you need a pH tester? (Benefits)
At present, there are lots of benefits if you choose to use a pH meter rather than utilizing other forms of measurement. Once you calibrate your device, it can already offer you a direct reading that is definitely very easy to understand. This implies that there is no room for any sort of distraction or skepticism.
And, utilizing a pH meter is quite more objective than poring over a color pH testing strip. Such strips are prone to vary in brand as well as color, which convey that obtaining a reading hinges on the manner you think the color appears. Nonetheless, a pH meter simply provides you with a simple number that is no sweat to comprehend.
Investing in the right pH meter device can offer you with a number of benefits that you would certainly be grateful for and these include:
- Ease of use. You could easily embed a pH meter into the liquid you want to gauge. As you can see, utilizing a pH indicator is actually trickier as compared to using a p H meter device.
- It is true that p H meters are slightly more intricate to utilize since they especially require calibration and must be regularly maintained. But, the best thing about them is that they are capable of gauging more precisely as compared to test strips and other means of gauging pH.
For fact, the number of hydrogen ions is assessed by the meter, and which is virtually a voltimeter and is known to be more responsive as compared to other approaches.
- Reading a pH meter is perceived as less subjective as compared to reading a pH indicator or a color strip. pH indicators and color strips could provide a scope of colors and this makes them subjected to being read distinctly by diverse observers and is ultimately restricting for color-blind people.
- pH meters are recognized as more definite if compared with other means of gauging pH and is capable of gauging down to the 0.01th of pH unit. While you can find some pH test strips that could deal with ranges tinier than 0 to 14 that could provide a more exact level of readings than regular test strips; these are still not as precise as pH meters.
By and large, pH meter devices can provide the perks of not being disposable. This means that besides periodically buying probe storage solutions and calibration standards once you make the basic purchase, you could gauge as many pH values as you prefer. And, every time you gauge pH utilizing another approach, you would need to restock your supply.
To put simply, these are convenient and cost-effective because they allow you to gauge with a single meter as many times as you prefer, so you can set aside some bucks and enjoy more convenience.
Frequently Asked Questions
How do you know if your pH meter is accurate?
Testing a pH measurement tool for accuracy isn’t overly complicated. You can either use a test kit or pH color chart/test paper. My personal preference would be to spend a little more on a high-quality test kit.
After all, specialized kits are much more reliable with their results than color charts or test paper. A high-quality one like the Apera Instruments Value Series PH20 pH Tester Kit is a godsend for any aquarium owner. To test, you simply need to dip the pH meter into the buffer solution and compare it against the expected reading.
It won’t only function as a pH measurer as it’s also a pH thermometer. So it’s truly an excellent accessory to have when owning an aquarium.
If you don’t have a test kit or buffer solution to compare against, try to find some liquid whose pH level you already know. For example, vinegar and bleach have pH levels of 2 and 13, respectively.
Why is aquarium water pH so important for your fish?
Keeping stable aquarium water pH is vital to providing a safe and comfortable environment for fish. However, you must know your fish’s ideal pH requirements to achieve this relaxed setting.
Once you do, setting up your tank perfectly for the fish’s needs becomes much easier. You can then evaluate the water quality over time to ensure it meets those needs via pH levels. It’s why having a high-quality ppm and pH meter or liquid pH tester for water is so essential.
I should also mention providing your fish with their ideal pH levels offers other benefits. It reduces their stress, improves their growth rate, and helps them resist diseases. So it’s easy to see why it’s such critical information to keep track of as an aquarium owner.
Which is more accurate, pH paper or pH meter?
Using a pH probe or pH meter is much more accurate than pH paper. These products offer a precise reading and aren’t limited by a color-based system. Instead, they provide a reliable and accurate reading that is easily understood.
However, there are a few ways in which pH paper is a more convenient pH checker for water. First, I must acknowledge that paper options are easy to use—it only requires sticking the paper into the water for a certain amount of time. The process doesn’t change much for soil or other pH readings.
Another area where pH paper is more convenient than pH/ppm meter devices is the price tag. In fact, paper options are much less expensive, which is why many newbies choose them. So buyers must weigh whether they value accuracy or convenience with these testers.
In my case, I’m always willing to pay a little extra for more accurate results. You’ll never see me using a paper pH dirt tester or water tester unless there isn’t a pH meter near me.
What are the most trusted internal pH tester brands?
As you know, it could be daunting to pick a suitable pH meter device particularly if you do not have much knowledge about it. So, it is highly advised to consider purchasing from first-rate manufacturers that are highly recognized and trusted in the field.
If you are feeling confused with regard to the most trusted brands that you can put all your trust on, you can refer to the following pH meter brands. These are considered one of the top-rated options that you can check out if you prefer to precisely check the pH level in your tank.
- Apera Instruments, LLC
- Sonkir Soil pH Meter
How to set up and use?
Once you have selected the kind of pH meter that you need exactly, the next thing for you to learn is how to utilize it properly. Please be guided that every p H meter is slightly distinct from the other. And, the most excellent means to determine how to utilize a certain meter is to observe the directions.
A detailed guide on how you could utilize a p H meter starts with calibrating your device. You can begin the calibration method by simply gathering your solutions and the pH electrode probe.
At the time you have collected the needed materials, tidy the electrode probe with the aid of deionized water. After that, blot it dry using a tissue or a soft fabric.
Then, add the electrode probe to a pH 7 solution. Let this stabilize and from there you could start programming the meter to read 7. In so doing, this would prepare it for the next period you utilize it. Repeat the same method except with a pH 2 buffer solution. Afterward, add the electrode to the solution and let it become steady. Again, turn the electrode to pH 2. Carefully lift it from the solution, thoroughly wash it off and gently dry it using a soft fabric or tissue.
Keep in mind that at this period, you are prepared to utilize your p H meter. See to it to adhere to the extra calibration instructions prior to utilizing your probes. And, once you are prepared to start, you may commence by switching on the meter and providing it with a few minutes to fine-tune. Check if it is on p H mode and if it had enough time to be in a steady state.
Then, place the electrode probe in the sample that you would prefer to examine. Allow it to stay there for a few minutes to obtain a more accurate result. Let it become steady prior to taking down the result.
At the time it has become steady, you could obtain that reading on display. Make it a point that you wash off the p H meter and place it back into the storage solution.
How to calibrate pH meter without solution?
It is still possible to calibrate your pH meter even without a buffering solution. While it is true that this is not as precise as the item that you could purchase at the store, it could somehow offer you close readings. You can start by:
- Add tap water to a canister. Make sure to fill it with roughly 80% of water.
- After that, start adding mono potassium phosphate. This must be added gradually till you have added approximately ten grams. Afterward, thoroughly mix the solution till it mixes in.
- Gently add potassium hydroxide in order to bring the pH up to 7. You must be examining the water since you are adding this to allow it to increase to 7. Once accomplished properly, this provides you a solution that you could utilize for the pH 7 buffer.
- The next method would be to create a buffer for pH 4. Repeat the same process but for this, you’ll need to add twenty grams of citric acid rather than mono potassium phosphate. After this, add potassium hydroxide till you have reached pH 4.
- Allow the buffers to stay untouched for a few hours to stabilize and to acquire their pH level. Here, your homemade solutions are all set.
The good news is that you could exploit this solution just like when you utilized something purchased from a store. Basically, you could utilize it to gauge the alkalinity or acidity of your solutions and it is also intended to help readjust your pH levels probes.
How to care & clean?
If your pH meter is already covered with dirt and it has already dried out, it is highly suggested to have it professionally cleaned. While its condition is nothing serious, it is critical to provide it with special treatment to enable it to function at its best. If it is not in its best state, there are some things that could be executed to allow it to keep operating without any trouble.
It is worth mentioning that special washes can be purchased to care for the probes and they could be utilized on a regular mode to sustain the distinguished conductive surface of the probe. Meanwhile, it is indispensable to adhere to the manual cleaning instructions if your meter junctions get clogged.
In addition to these, it is essential to tidy the electrode between uses. Take in mind that it is not good to simply remove it from the solution that you have been working with and then just directly place it back in the storage solution. Be sure to wash the probe thoroughly using deionized or distilled water.
After this, dry it instantly by blotting it prior to immersing it in your next solution or before placing it back in the storage solution.
What is the warranty?
When it comes to shopping for pH meters, it is best if you carefully pick the one that comes with practical features and at the same time supported by warranty offers. This is especially important when you shop online. As you know, it is inevitable to receive some defective items at times and if the product you bought is not backed up by a warranty, it would be difficult for you to have the issue addressed at once.
Luckily, a lot of products showcased in this article come with different warranties that shoppers can depend on in case they encounter some issues with the product purchased. A few of the warranties that you could avail of include lifetime or limited warranties, defective product replacement and money back guarantee offers.
Where to buy?
You can purchase pH meters in nearby local specialty pet stores, fish or marine supply stores or aquarium supply stores. At times, some well-stocked hardware stores and home improvement stores also sell products like this. These are not that difficult to find and there are plenty of less expensive options for you to opt for.
On the other hand, you can find more available options by shopping online such as in one of the most leading online shopping sites, Amazon. Here, you can browse lots of different manufacturers and renowned brands so choosing the right pH meter for your tank needs should no longer be a cumbersome task for you to handle.
Inspecting the pH of the tank water should always be a vital component of every aquarium keeper’s weekly routine. This is because this device can work wonders in detecting and warding off serious issues in the future. While there is a myriad of pH meters and tests sold on the market today, not all of them are created reliably in every case- outcomes could be impacted by the pH levels you prefer to gauge, the water’s ionic strength and the temperature.
Anyhow, once you become more insightful of how the best pH meter functions, you will start to discern how practical they are. Their advantages go across various fields, from beverages to foods, biology, hydroponics, chemistry, aquarium keeping and the like.
Indeed, it cannot be denied that the procedure of calibrating and utilizing a pH meter appears intricate; however, once you get accustomed to it, you’ll find it quite uncomplicated to manage.
You could utilize pH meters in your fish tanks to make certain that your aquatic pets are dwelling in a kind of water that is clean and safe for them. As you might already know, too acidic or too basic is not healthy; hence, having the right pH meter can considerably help keep your pet fish in the best possible condition when you consistently keep the levels of pH in check.
Fundamentally, with proper care and maintenance, your finned friends could take pleasure in living in a risk-free and well-balanced habitat.